Taxonomy conform IOC World Bird List


  • Breeding range => Palearctic : subarctic to temperate Palearctic marshes: British Is., Scandinavia and nw Russia through Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka, Kuril Is. and Sakhalin (e Russia); in s through Iberian Peninsula and nw Morocco, e through Mediterranean, Turkey, Caucasus, n, sc Iran, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan to n Xinjiang (nw China), w Mongolia, ne China and Hokkaido and n Honshu (n Japan)
  • Nonbreeding range => short-range southward movements into wider habitat range


  • E. s. lusitanica - nw Spain and Portugal
  • E. s. schoeniclus - w, n, nc Europe to n European Russia
  • E. s. passerina - nw Siberia
  • E. s. parvirostris - c Siberia
  • E. s. pyrrhulina - sc Siberia and ne Mongolia to Kamchatka Peninsula, Kuril Is., n Japan and ne China
  • E. s. pallidior - sw Siberia and n Kazakhstan
  • E. s. stresemanni - e Austria, Hungary, n Serbia and nw Romania
  • E. s. ukrainae - Moldova and Ukraine to c European Russia
  • E. s. incognita - se European Russia to nw, c, ne Kazakhstan
  • E. s. witherbyi - Spain (except nw), s France, Sardinia, Balearic Is. and Morocco
  • E. s. intermedia - Italy and the Adriatic coast to Albania
  • E. s. tschusii - Bulgaria, Romania and the n Black Sea region
  • E. s. reiseri - se Albania, nw Greece, Macedonia and w, c Turkey
  • E. s. caspia - e Turkey, the Caucasus and n Iran
  • E. s. korejewi - sw, e Iran, s Turkmenistan
  • E. s. pyrrhuloides - w Kazakhstan to se Kazakhstan
  • E. s. harterti - e Kazakhstan to c Mongolia and nw China
  • E. s. centralasiae - w China
  • E. s. zaidamensis - wc China
Data Number
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Updated at: 2024-02-24 13:26:31
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External links




adult breeding


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